Plant Based Vaccines

What are Plant-Based Vaccines

Plant-based vaccines are vaccines that are produced using plants as the host for the production of the antigenic component of the vaccine. The antigen is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies to protect against the targeted disease.
In plant-based vaccine production, the DNA sequence encoding the antigenic protein is inserted into the genome of a plant, which then produces the antigen in its tissues. This can be achieved by using various techniques such as agroinfiltration, transgenic plant expression systems, or virus-based vectors.
Plant-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccine production methods, including lower production costs, scalability, and increased safety due to the absence of human or animal-derived materials. Additionally, plant-based vaccines do not require refrigeration, which is particularly beneficial for distribution in low-income countries with limited access to cold storage.
Some examples of plant-based vaccines that are currently in development or have been approved for use include a vaccine for COVID-19, the Norovirus vaccine, and the HPV vaccine.

Canada Approves World’s First Plant-Based Vaccine

Medicago Covifenz® COVID-19 vaccine is a SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) recombinant (adjuvanted), protein virus-like particle (VLP). This type of vaccine uses plant-based technology. The virus’ genetic code is delivered to the leaf cell of the plant using a harmless bacteria.
Source: COVID-19 plant-based vaccines

What is mRNA?

How do you explain mRNA to a third grader?

Inside our bodies, we have special things called cells. These cells do different jobs to keep us healthy and strong. One of the most important jobs of a cell is to make proteins. Proteins are like building blocks that help our bodies do many different things, like grow and move.

To make proteins, the cell needs to read the instructions that are stored inside our DNA. DNA is like a recipe book that tells the cell how to make proteins. But, the DNA can’t leave the cell’s nucleus, so it needs a messenger to bring the instructions to the rest of the cell. This is where mRNA comes in!

mRNA stands for “messenger RNA”. It’s like a messenger that takes the instructions from the DNA in the nucleus and carries them to the rest of the cell. Once the mRNA reaches the part of the cell where proteins are made, it tells the cell what kind of protein to make and how to make it.

So, in short, mRNA is like a messenger that carries instructions from the DNA to the rest of the cell so that it can make proteins.

Kentucky BioProcessor Grows Ebola Vaccine in Tobacco

What’s Ebola?

Ebola is a severe and often fatal viral disease that affects humans and other primates. The virus that causes Ebola is known as the Ebola virus, and there are several different strains of the virus.
Ebola is transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals, such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, and monkeys, as well as through contact with the bodily fluids of infected humans, such as blood, sweat, vomit, feces, urine, breast milk, and semen.
Symptoms of Ebola typically include fever, headache, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and in some cases, bleeding. The disease has a high mortality rate, with some outbreaks resulting in over 90% of infected individuals dying from the disease.
There is no specific treatment for Ebola, but supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, electrolyte replacement, and oxygen therapy, can help to improve survival rates. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals or individuals, practicing good hygiene, and following infection control measures in healthcare settings.

Edible Cholera Vaccine in Rice

The following excerpt is courtesy of – Scientists Are Growing an Edible Cholera Vaccine in Rice: The current cholera pandemic first emerged in the 1970s and has devastated many communities in low-income countries. Each year, cholera is responsible for an estimated 1.3 million to 4 million cases and 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide. Immunologist Hiroshi Kiyono and his team at the University of Tokyo hope they can be part of the solution: “They’re making a cholera vaccine out of rice.”

What is VAERS?

What is VAERS?
VAERS is the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System:
Have you had a reaction following a vaccination? Contact your healthcare provider. Report an Adverse Event using the VAERS online form or the downloadable PDF. Important: If you are experiencing a medical emergency, seek immediate assistance from a healthcare provider or call 9-1-1.

mRNA injections in Livestock?

How are Transgenic Papayas’ made?

What are Transgenic Plants?
Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically modified through the introduction of new genes from another organism. This is done using genetic engineering techniques, which allow scientists to insert new genetic material into the plant’s genome.
The new genes can come from any organism, including bacteria, viruses, animals, or even other plants. These genes are usually chosen for their ability to confer desirable traits to the plant, such as resistance to pests or herbicides, increased yield, or enhanced nutritional content.
To create a transgenic plant, scientists first identify the gene or genes they want to introduce into the plant. They then isolate the gene and use a special tool called a “vector” to insert it into the plant’s DNA. The most commonly used vector is a modified form of a bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which naturally infects plants and transfers its own genes into their DNA.
Once the new gene has been successfully introduced into the plant, it is allowed to grow and develop. The resulting plant will contain the new gene in all of its cells, and will be able to pass it on to its offspring through normal reproduction.
Transgenic plants have many potential applications, including improving crop yields, reducing the need for pesticides and herbicides, and creating plants with enhanced nutritional content. However, they also raise concerns about potential risks to human health and the environment, and must be carefully regulated and monitored.

The Isis Thesis – Ancient Egyptian knowledge of Horizontal Gene Transfer?

What is Horizontal Gene Transfer?
Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) is the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another that is not its offspring. In contrast to vertical gene transfer, which occurs when genes are passed down from parent to offspring, HGT occurs between unrelated organisms.
There are several mechanisms by which HGT can occur, including:
Transformation: where free DNA is taken up by a recipient cell and integrated into its genome.
Transduction: where a virus carries genetic material from one host cell to another.
Conjugation: where genetic material is transferred between cells via direct cell-to-cell contact, usually facilitated by a plasmid.
HGT can have a significant impact on the evolution of organisms, as it allows for the transfer of beneficial traits between species. For example, antibiotic resistance genes can be transferred between bacteria through HGT, allowing resistant strains to emerge. HGT has also been implicated in the evolution of eukaryotic organisms, including the acquisition of photosynthesis in plants through the transfer of genes from cyanobacteria.

What is CRISPR-Cas9

What is CRISPR-Cas9?
CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary technology used for genome editing. It allows scientists to make precise, targeted changes to DNA sequences in living cells. Here’s how it works:
CRISPR is a naturally occurring system in bacteria that acts as a defense mechanism against invading viruses. It consists of a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) molecule and a Cas protein.
Scientists have adapted this system for genome editing by designing a guide RNA (gRNA) that is complementary to the DNA sequence they want to edit.
The gRNA is paired with the Cas9 protein, which acts like a pair of molecular scissors. Together, they form a complex that can recognize and cut the targeted DNA sequence.
Once the DNA is cut, the cell’s natural repair mechanisms kick in. Scientists can either introduce a new piece of DNA that will be incorporated during the repair process, or simply let the cell’s natural repair mechanisms take over.
Overall, the CRISPR-Cas9 system allows scientists to precisely edit DNA sequences, opening up new possibilities for everything from curing genetic diseases to creating new crop varieties.

What Happened To China’s CRISPR-Cas9 Children?

In November 2018, a Chinese scientist named He Jiankui announced that he had used the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 to create the world’s first genetically modified human babies. The two twin girls, called Lulu and Nana, were born earlier that month after undergoing a controversial procedure in which their DNA was altered to make them resistant to HIV.
He’s announcement was met with international outrage and condemnation from the scientific community, as it was widely seen as unethical and unsafe. Many experts argued that the long-term effects of genetic modification were not yet fully understood, and that the risks of unintended consequences and harm to the children were too great.
The Chinese government launched an investigation into He’s work and ultimately found him guilty of violating ethics guidelines and regulations. He was subsequently fired from his university post and placed under house arrest.
The CRISPR babies scandal has raised significant concerns about the ethics and regulation of genetic modification, and has prompted calls for greater oversight and international collaboration in this field.

Who is Orphan Black?

What is BioTerrorism?

What is Synthetic biology?
Synthetic biology is a field of science that combines engineering principles with biological systems to create new and useful biological components or systems. It involves the design, construction, and manipulation of biological systems, including genes, cells, and organisms, with the aim of achieving specific goals.
At its core, synthetic biology involves the use of genetic engineering techniques to create new or modified genetic circuits, pathways, or organisms that perform specific functions. These functions can range from the production of specific proteins or other biomolecules to the development of new drugs or biofuels.
One of the key aspects of synthetic biology is the use of standardized and modular genetic parts or devices, such as promoters, transcription factors, and sensors, which can be combined in different ways to create new and complex biological systems. This approach allows researchers to quickly and efficiently design and test new biological systems, and to share their results with other researchers in the field.
Overall, synthetic biology has the potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries, from healthcare to energy production, by providing new tools and technologies for the design and creation of novel biological systems. However, it also raises important ethical and safety concerns, particularly with regards to the potential for the accidental release of genetically modified organisms into the environment.

Biosecurity for the Age of Redisgned Life